Regular and irregular past participles

Regular past participles

Most past participles are regular. The patterns for regular past participles are the following:

-ar verbs: simply drop the infinitive ending and replace it by -ado.

-er verbs: drop the infinitive ending and replace it by -ido.

-ir verbs: drop the infinitive ending and replace it by -ido.

* hablar -- hablado (spoken)

He hablado con tu madre. I have spoken to your mother.

* comer -- comido (eaten)

¿Has comido galletas? Have you eaten some biscuits?

* vivir -- vivido (lived)

Hemos vivido en España durante 8 años. We have lived in Spain for 8 years.

Note: Most -er and -ir verbs with a vowel (not applies for verbs ending in -uir) immediately preceding the infinitive ending add an accent mark over the i of the past participle ending –ido (-ído)

creer creído believed

caer caído fallen

leer leído read .

traer traído brought

oír oído heard

poseer poseído possessed

sonreír sonreído smiled

¿Has traído un regalo? Have you brought a present?

Han leído nuestra carta. They have read our letter.

Irregular past participles

Some past participles are irregular. Most of them end in -to.

abrir abierto opened

cubrir cubierto covered

devolver devuelto returned

escribir escrito written

freír frito fried

imprimir imprimido/impreso printed

morir muerto dead

poner puesto put, placed

resolver resuelto resolved

romper roto broken, torn

ver visto seen

volver vuelto returned

describir descrito described

descubrir descubierto discovered

disolver disuelto dissolved

envolver envuelto wrapped

proveer provisto provided

pudrir podrido rotten

Two of the most common past participles ending in -cho.

decir dicho said

hacer hecho done


¿Has escrito la carta? Have you written the letter?

Yo no he abierto esa ventana. I haven´t opened that window.

Antonio me ha dicho que vendrá mañana. Antonio has told me he will come tomorrow.

Los plátanos se han podrido. Bananas have rotten.

¿Dónde has puesto mi abrigo? Where have you put my coat?

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